PediaSmart Dairy Nutritional Beverage

Only Organic Dairy Beverage to Provide
Complete & Balanced Nutrition

It is important for parents to understand why balanced nutrition is critical during the growing years of childhood. The best nutrition comes from the various food groups including organic fruits, vegetables, meats and grains. PediaSmart® Dairy is recommended when fresh foods are not readily available or when medical or digestive problems hamper normal growth. Below is a description of each nutrient used in PediaSmart® Dairy and how these nutrients impact your child's health.

PediaSmart® Dairy contains 100% or more of the NAS-NRC Dietary Recommended Intake for protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins and minerals for children 1 to 13 years when consumed in amounts appropriate for a child's age. For use as a sole source of nutrition, seek direction from a healthcare professional.

• In 1000 milliliters (approximately 33 fl. oz.) for children 1 to 8 years of age.
• In 1500 milliliters (approximately 50 fl. oz.) for children 9 to 13 years of age.

Why are Vitamins and Minerals Essential Nutrients?

Vitamins and minerals are essential nutrients needed by the body to perform all of its functions, thus they are essential for proper growth, development, and body maintenance. Vitamins are organic, meaning they come from living organisms. Minerals are inorganic, meaning they do not come from living organisms but from substances such as limestone, shells, or the earth.


Except for two vitamins (Vitamin D and niacin), humans cannot make their own vitamins and minerals. They must be obtained from foods preferably or supplements if needed.

As important as vitamins are to the body, they can do nothing without minerals. Vitamins and minerals work together and are used as catalysts for many reactions that take place in the body. For example, vitamin C helps the body to absorb the mineral iron needed for healthy blood. The synergistic effect of calcium and Vitamin D in promoting good bone health is well known. Specific amounts of vitamins and minerals are needed for bodily functions. Too much or too little of any one of them can cause illness. The lack of Vitamin D, for example, can cause rickets (poor bone development). Too little iron in the diet results in anemia.

The best source of vitamins and minerals is food. Sometimes the body needs more than a person can consume from foods. Pregnant and lactating women will usually be advised to take a daily vitamin and mineral supplement. Breastfed infants may need an iron supplement after six months of age. Postmenopausal women need a calcium and Vitamin D supplement to prevent osteoporosis. Picky eaters, especially those who won’t eat specific types of foods, like fruits and vegetables, may need a daily vitamin and mineral supplement or consume PediaSmart. Whenever there is any question about the need for a supplement, it’s always best to consult with your healthcare professional.

Many of the signs and symptoms of a vitamin or mineral deficiency or excess are very general and can result from a variety of medical conditions. It is always important to have your healthcare professional evaluate any symptoms so that appropriate care is given.

How do Water-Soluble & Fat-Soluble Vitamins Differ?

Vitamins are often characterized as being water-soluble or fat-soluble. If the body does not need all of the water-soluble vitamins you consume, then the excess is excreted in the urine. However, this is not the case with fat-soluble vitamins. Any excess of fat-soluble vitamins gets stored in the body and they are not excreted. This can cause illness (hypervitaminosis). The fat-soluble vitamins are A, D, E and K. All other vitamins are water-soluble.

How Does the Human Body Use Minerals?

Three minerals (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium) account for 98% of the body’s mineral content and are especially important for bone health. In addition to these major minerals, the body also needs minuscule amounts of other minerals called trace elements.


Trace elements such as iron, zinc, iodine are essential for the body’s enzyme systems to function properly. Three minerals (sodium, potassium, and chloride) are known as electrolytes because of their function in the body to conduct electrical currents.

The body can regulate the balance of minerals. If a person consumes more minerals than are needed, any excess is excreted. If the body lacks a mineral, it will compensate for this lack by absorbing more of the mineral from foods consumed. Otherwise, mineral supplements are usually unnecessary except in chronic conditions where food intake is limited or when nutrient absorption is affected.

There are a few exceptions to this. An infant is born with iron stores that will last for 4 to 6 months. An iron supplement (or use of an iron-fortified formula for non-breastfed infants) will be recommended to prevent iron-deficiency anemia. During pregnancy, an iron supplement is often recommended to prevent anemia in mom and to assure a good iron supply to the fetus. Calcium along with Vitamin D is often recommended to postmenopausal women to prevent osteoporosis. The following is information on the major minerals and trace elements needed by the body.

Vitamin A

This is important for the development of bones and teeth and helps maintain the gums. It is essential for night vision, healthy skin, hair and mucous membranes. It is sometimes referred to as the anti-infective vitamin because it is required for the proper functioning of the immune system and helps prevent infection.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 167 IU (per 100 calories) or 400 IU (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good animal sources of Vitamin A include: milk and dairy products, organ meats such as liver.
Good plant sources of the pro Vitamin A carotenoids include: deep yellow and orange fruits and vegetables such as carrots, sweet potatoes, cantaloupe, and dark green leafy vegetables.

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Vitamin D

Vitamin D, also known as calciferol, is often called the sunshine vitamin because of the body’s ability to make it from the interaction of the sun on the skin. Vitamin D made from this process is referred to as Vitamin D3 or cholecalciferol. Vitamin D3 is also available from animal sources. Vitamin D derived from plant sources is known as Vitamin D2 or ergocalciferol. Vitamin D helps the body properly utilize calcium and phosphorus for the proper functioning of the nervous system. Recent research has confirmed that Vitamin D3 is more effective than Vitamin D2 in humans in improving the bodies Vitamin D status.1

Vitamin D is essential for the development and maintenance of healthy bones and teeth in infants, children and adults. In infants and children, a deficiency of Vitamin D results in rickets, a softening of the bones, which can result in bent legs. In adults, osteomalacia (a softening of the bones) or osteoporosis (thinning and weakening of the bones) can occur.

An excessive amount of Vitamin D supplementation can result in an elevated blood calcium level and can lead to calcium deposits in soft tissues, including blood vessels and kidneys, resulting in serious damage. High blood pressure, high blood cholesterol levels, diarrhea, drowsiness or headaches could also result from an overdose of Vitamin D. Before using a Vitamin D supplement, always check with your healthcare provider who can perform a blood level test and determine the appropriate amount of Vitamin D supplementation needed per day.

For infants and children consuming Baby’s Only Organic® formulas or Organic PediaSmart® Complete Nutrition Beverage, the amount of Vitamin D3, the preferred form of Vitamin D, in these formulas meets the recommended amounts needed daily when used as a sole source of nutrition. When used as a part of a healthy diet, the amount of Vitamin D in these formulas helps to ensure adequate Vitamin D status.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 50 IU (per 100 calories) or 120 IU (per 8 fluid ounces)

Good Food Sources: fortified milk, cheese, eggs, some fish such as sardines and salmon, and fish oils.

1. Tripkovic L, Lambert H, Hart K, et al. "Comparison of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: A systemic review and meta-analysis," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2012; 95: 1357-1364.

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Vitamin E

Vitamin E protects Vitamin A and the essential fatty acids from oxidation in the body. It is needed for the proper functioning of nerves and muscles and helps to form red blood cells, muscle and other tissues.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 2.5 IU (per 100 calories) or 6 IU (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources:
poultry, seafood, green leafy vegetables, egg yolk, nuts, seeds, wheat germ, whole grains.

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Vitamin K

Vitamin K: There are three types of Vitamin K:

• Vitamin K1 is used in PediaSmart® Dairy . It is known as phylloquinone or phytonadione, which is found in plants.*
• Vitamin K2 or menaquinone which is synthesized by many bacteria.
• Vitamin K3 or menadione which is a synthetic form.

Vitamin K helps the blood to clot when the body is injured and is important in bone development and repair.

In newborn infants, there is a life threatening and preventable bleeding disorder known as Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding (VKDB). This is the reason why it is standard practice to give all newborns an injection of phylloquinone after birth.

*PediaSmart® Dairy: 7.0 mcg (per 100 calories) or 16 mcg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources:
green leafy vegetables, pork, liver, oats, wheat bran, whole grains.

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Biotin is part of the B-complex of vitamins. It is thought to play a role in cell growth and is important in the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates (sugars), and some amino acids (the building blocks of protein).

PediaSmart® Dairy: 19.0 mcg (per 100 calories) or 45 mcg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources:
eggs, meats, fish, nuts, seeds, dried beans and peas (legumes).

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Folic Acid

Folic acid, sometimes called folate or folacin or Vitamin B9, works with Vitamins B6 and B12 in protein metabolism. It is needed to make genetic material (DNA and RNA). It promotes normal red blood cell formation and reduces the risk of neural tube (brain and spine) birth defects. This is one reason why a folic acid supplement is recommended during pregnancy.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 25.0 mcg (per 100 calories) or 60 mcg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources:
poultry, liver, dark green leafy vegetables, dried beans and peas (legumes), yeast breads, wheat germ, cereals, oranges, grapefruits.

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Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, niacinamide, or Vitamin B3, is found in every cell of the body. It is necessary for energy production and to maintain the normal functioning of skin, nerves and the digestive tract. It can be manufactured by the body from the amino acid tryptophan. However, the amount needed by the body will usually exceed the amount that the body can produce and it is necessary to consume niacin from foods.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 0.8 mg (per 100 calories) or 2.0 mg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: poultry, fish (especially tuna and salmon), beef, peanuts and peanut butter, seeds, potatoes.

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Pantothenic Acid

Pantothenic acid is also known as Vitamin B5. It is involved in numerous chemical reactions in the body and is essential for the metabolism of fat and sugars. Pantothenic acid is also involved in the manufacture of chemicals that regulate nerve functions.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 1.0 mg (per 100 calories) or 2.5 mg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: meat, fish, poultry, egg yolk, whole grain cereals, dried beans and peas (legumes).

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B Vitamins

Riboflavin: also known as Vitamin B2, is found in every cell of the body and is needed for energy production. It also helps to maintain vision and the metabolism and proper functioning of skin and nerve cells.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 0.2 mg (per 100 calories) or 0.5 mg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: milk and dairy products, enriched breads, eggs, meats (especially organ meats like liver), green leafy vegetables, grains.

Thiamin: This is also known as Vitamin B1 and is important for the normal functioning of the nervous system. Thiamin also participates in the body’s ability to use protein and sugars for energy production.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 0.3 mg (per 100 calories) or 0.6 mg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: whole grain and enriched grain products, pork, seafood, cereals.

Vitamin B6: This can also be referred to as pyridoxine or pyridoxal. This vitamin influences many body functions including the regulation of blood sugar levels, the manufacturing of hemoglobin in red blood cells which carries oxygen to all body cells, and the functioning of the nervous system. As protein intake increases, so does the body’s need for Vitamin B6. Also, an adequate Vitamin B6 intake decreases the requirement for niacin from food sources because it aids in the conversion of tryptophan to niacin.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 0.3 mg (per 100 calories) or 0.6 mg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: chicken, fish, pork, liver, whole grains, cereals, spinach, sweet and white potatoes, bananas, prunes, watermelon.

Vitamin B12: This is also known as cyanocobalamin because it contains the mineral cobalt. It is crucial in the reproduction of every cell in the body because it is needed to make DNA, the genetic material required for life. Vitamin B12 is essential for normal growth, healthy nerve tissue, and the formation of blood cells.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 0.6 mcg (per 100 calories) or 1.5 mcg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: All foods of animal origin (meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk and other dairy products) and seafood.

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Vitamin C

Vitamin C is also known as ascorbic acid. Vitamin C has received a lot of attention because of its major role in the body as an antioxidant, a substance that prevents damage to cells from free radicals and pollutants, and as a protector against infections, particularly the common cold. Vitamin C plays a role in nerve transmission, tissue repair, the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, and the enhancement of iron absorption. Vitamin C is used by the body to make collagen, the connective tissue in skin, ligaments and bones.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 10.0 mg (per 100 calories) or 24 mg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: citrus fruits, berries, melon, peppers, dark green leafy vegetables, sweet potatoes, plaintains, tomato and tomato products.

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Inositol is not a true vitamin because the body can manufacture what it needs. However, it is often considered a water-soluble member of the vitamin B family. Inositol works with choline to help transport fat from the liver. It also helps maintain cell membranes and is involved in the proper functioning of the nervous system.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 8.0 mg (per 100 calories) or 20 mg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: liver, soybeans, eggs, whole grains, nuts, bananas, vegetables.

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Choline is not a true vitamin because the body can manufacture small amounts of it. However, it must be consumed from foods to meet overall body needs especially during times of rapid growth and development such as pregnancy, lactation, infancy, and early childhood. Choline is an essential nutrient necessary for the structure and function of all cells in the body.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 35.0 mg (per 100 calories) or 83 mg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: beef liver, egg yolk, peanut butter and peanuts, soybeans and soy products.

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Although the major function of calcium is the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth, it is also needed to keep the heart pumping, muscles moving, and nerves communicating. Calcium helps regulate the passage of nutrients in and out of cells, assists in normal blood clotting, and is important to normal kidney functioning. PediaSmart® Dairy contains 230 milligrams of Calcium and 200 milligrams of Phosphorus per 8 ounces. The calcium and phosphorus in PediaSmart® are properly balanced at a ratio of 1.2:1.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 104 mg (per 100 calories) or 250 mg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: milk and dairy products, fish with edible bones (such as sardines and salmon), oysters, tofu, dark leafy green vegetables.

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This teams with calcium to aid in bone and teeth formation, kidney function, and heart contraction. The balance of calcium and phosphorus is important in the body, especially in infancy, to ensure that the team works together well in keeping the body’s chemical balance. PediaSmart® Dairy contains 230 milligrams of Calcium and 200 milligrams of Phosphorus per 8 ounces. The calcium and phosphorus in PediaSmart® Dairy are properly balanced at a ratio of 1.2:1.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 83 mg (per 100 calories) or 200 mg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: milk and dairy products, meat, fish, eggs, nuts, dried beans and peas (legumes).

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This works with calcium and Vitamin C to maintain bone health. It is also necessary for energy production, the making of proteins used by the body to make cells and genetic material, the transmission of nerve impulses, the contraction and relaxation of the muscles, and maintaining the delicate electrical balance of all body cells.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 17 mg (per 100 calories) or 40 mg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: soybeans and soy products, nuts, whole grains, dried beans and peas (legumes), green vegetables, whole grain breads and cereals, shellfish.

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As blood passes through the tiny air sacs in the lung, oxygen attaches itself to the iron in the blood. That’s how oxygen is carried to all parts of the body. Iron combines with protein and copper to make hemoglobin, a necessary component of red blood cells that carries oxygen to the cells. Iron also is a component of myoglobin, a protein that stores oxygen specifically in muscle tissue. Approximately 90% of iron in the body is conserved and reused every day.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 1.4 mg (per 100 calories) or 3.3 mg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: meat (especially organ meats like liver), dried fruits (raisins, apricots), nuts, green leafy vegetables.

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This is needed for cell growth and repair, digestion and metabolism of nutrients, and is vital to the development of the reproductive organs. It also helps regulate the body’s immune response to infection and aids in wound healing.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 0.6 mg (per 100 calories) or 1.5 mg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: beef, liver, oysters, wheat germ, beans, nuts.

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In combination with Vitamin E, selenium works as an antioxidant to help maintain a healthy heart. Selenium provides elasticity to tissues and helps cells to defend themselves against damage from oxidation. Selenium also aids in the proper functioning of the pancreas.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 2.9 mcg (per 100 calories) or 7 mcg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: seafood, poultry, egg yolks, whole grain breads and cereals, eggs, mushrooms.

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This is necessary for the absorption and utilization of iron in the body. Copper has an important role in the making of red blood cells and nerve fibers. It also works with Vitamin C to form elastin, a chief component of muscle fibers in the body. Copper is involved in hair and skin coloring, sensitivity to taste.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 0.08 mg (per 100 calories) or 0.20 mg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: Organ meats like liver, lobster, nuts, dried beans and peas (legumes), barley, prunes.

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This is probably best known for keeping the thyroid gland healthy. It is also involved in metabolizing fats and in regulating energy production.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 10 mcg (per 100 calories) or 23 mcg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: iodized salt, seafood.

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This is used by the body as a preferred cofactor in several important enzyme systems and is essential for a healthy tendon and bone structure. It is necessary for the metabolism of thiamine and Vitamin E and helps to maintain the health of the immune and nervous systems.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 0.15 mg (per 100 calories) or 0.36 mg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: whole grains and cereals, nuts, leafy vegetables, molasses, soybeans, sunflower seeds, and tea.

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Chromium: iis a trace mineral needed by the body for the metabolism of carbohydrates by enhancing the action of insulin. It is also involved in the metabolism of fats and proteins. Chromium is called a trace mineral because the human body only needs small amounts. The estimated safe and adequate intake of chromium for children 1 to 3 years of age is 11 micrograms (mcg) per day; for children 4 to 8 years of age, 15 mcg per day; and for children 9 to 13 years of age, 25 mcg per day for boys and 21 mcg per day for girls. Chromium deficiency is extremely rare but has occurred in situations where total parenteral nutrition (intravenous or IV nutrition) is the sole source of nutrition.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 3 mcg (per 100 calories) or 7.2 mcg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: whole grain products, green beans, broccoli, grape juice, and some spices such as garlic and basil.

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Molybdenum: is a trace mineral needed by a number of enzyme systems in the body to aid in the breakdown of foods. It is present in tooth enamel and may help to prevent dental caries.

A deficiency of molybdenum is rare and has only been seen in patients with Crohn’s disease who were on long term total parenteral (intravenous) nutrition with no added molybdenum.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 3.1 mcg (per 100 calories) or 7.5 mcg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: cereal grains, nuts, legumes, eggs, sunflower seeds and green beans.

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This is an electrolyte and works with sodium to regulate the body’s waste balance, transmit nerve impulses, and regulate muscle contraction including the heart muscles. It is essential for metabolism and the release of insulin. In infants and young children who have diarrhea or vomiting, an oral electrolyte solution, such as PediaVance®, containing a balance among sodium, potassium and chloride is usually recommended to help prevent the body from becoming dehydrated due to a deficiency in these electrolytes.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 129 mg (per 100 calories) or 310 mg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: bananas, citrus fruits, dried fruits, deep yellow vegetables, potatoes, milk, bran cereal.

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The primary role of sodium in the body is to maintain fluid balance. Sodium is an electrolyte and works with potassium and chloride to conduct electrical currents in the body and keep tissue fluids in balance.

A deficiency of sodium is rare but loss of sodium through diarrhea, vomiting, or excessive sweating can cause dehydration, muscle cramps, weakness, and headaches. This is especially critical in infants and young children and the reason for use of an oral electrolyte solution, such as PediaVance®, with a balance of sodium, potassium and chloride when a child has diarrhea and vomiting.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 38.0 mg (per 100 calories) or 90 mg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: salt, milk, processed foods such as luncheon meats.

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This is an electrolyte and helps to maintain fluid balance in the body and also is a component of the stomach juices (hydrochloric acid) needed for digestion of foods.

A deficiency of chloride is rare but loss of chloride through diarrhea, vomiting, or excessive sweating can cause an upset in the body’s fluid balance resulting in dehydration. In infants and young children who have diarrhea or vomiting, an oral electrolyte solution, such as PediaVance®, containing a balance among sodium, potassium and chloride is usually recommended to help prevent the body from becoming dehydrated.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 113 mg (per 100 calories) or 270 mg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: salt, milk, processed foods such as luncheon meats.

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Carbohydrates are one of the crucial dietary sources of energy that support the brain, enable muscular contractions, and provide the fuel necessary to support a child’s growth, activity level, and learning capability. So it is important for a child to get adequate amounts of carbohydrates each day from good food sources.

Each gram of carbohydrate provides 4 calories. Carbohydrates are sometimes simply called sugars or starches. They are classified scientifically as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides.

Monosaccharide is a one molecule sugar (referred to as a simple sugar or simple carbohydrate). Examples are glucose (sometimes called dextrose), fructose (sometimes called fruit sugar), and galactose. Glucose is the major fuel needed by the body for energy. This is why intravenous fluids (IVs) used in medical situations contain glucose (dextrose).

Disaccharide is made up of two monosaccharides (referred to as a simple sugar or simple carbohydrate). Lactose (sometimes called milk sugar) is made by the joining of one glucose molecule with one galactose molecule. Sucrose is made by joining one molecule of fructose with one molecule of glucose. The body breaks down disaccharides into monosaccharides and then converts these to glucose providing needed energy for the body. PediaSmart® Dairy contains organic evaporated cane sugar which is a natural source of sucrose used by the body to help meet energy needs. PediaSmart® Dairy is suitable for lactose intolerance.

Polysaccharide contains more than two sugar molecules. Examples of polysaccharides include organic rice maltodextrin, as is found in PediaSmart®Dairy , organic rice sugar, corn syrup, molasses, and starches. Polysaccharides are often called complex sugars or complex carbohydrates.

Simple sugars are quickly digested and absorbed by the body into the bloodstream providing a quick source of energy. As sugar levels rise in the blood, the pancreas secretes the hormone insulin. Insulin is needed to move the sugar from the blood into the cells where the sugar is then used for energy. When this process goes fast, a feeling of hunger will more likely occur sooner. When it occurs slower, the body appears to be satisfied from hunger longer. Simple sugars usually cause blood sugar levels to rise quicker than complex sugars and increase the production and release of insulin by the pancreas. If the sugar in the bloodstream is not used by the body for energy, then it is stored as fat.

The longer the carbohydrate length, the slower the body breaks it down and, thus, the slower the absorption of the sugar from the intestinal tract into the bloodstream. This slower digestion process is better for the body. If there is a slower absorption of the sugar, there is a slower release of insulin. Also, a slower digestion lets the body utilize the longer length sugars like organic rice maltodextrinfor energy and there’s less potential for the sugar to be converted into fat.

Carbohydrates in PediaSmart® Dairy consist of a blend of organic rice maltodextrin and organic evaporated cane sugar. This combination offers the benefits of having both a simple sugar for quick energy and a complex sugar for a steadier supply of energy. This blend of sugars also gives PediaSmart® Dairy a not too sweet but delicious flavor accepted by children.

Organic Rice Maltodextrin is a bland tasting carbohydrate, is one-fifth as sweet as sucrose, and provides minimal sweetness to PediaSmart® Dairy. Organic rice maltodextrin is made from organic whole rice using a natural hydrolysis process without the use of acids, alkalis or sulfites.

Organic rice is grown by certified organic rice growers without synthetic fertilizers, synthetic pesticides, and growth regulators. The organic growth process relies on crop rotations, legumes, green manures, mineral bearing rocks and biological pest control to maintain healthy soils, provide the rice plants with nutrients, and minimize insects, weeds and other pests. The organic rice maltodextrin is sourced from California where the rice fields serve as an important wetland habitat for resident birds and waterfowl and also as a wintering ground and food source for migrating ducks and geese from Canada and Alaska.

Organic evaporated cane sugar is a minimally processed organic sweetener with a light tan natural color and a neutral pleasant flavor which can be used as a substitute for refined white sugar. The organic evaporated cane sugar has a higher sweetness level than organic rice maltodextrin, but offers the benefit of being organic and not highly processed like table sugar or corn syrup.

Organic evaporated cane sugar is not bleached or decolorized like refined white table sugar and is non-GMO. It is derived from organic sugar cane grown under strict organic guidelines. The land must be free of herbicides, pesticides and chemicals. When the mature organic sugar cane is ready for harvest, it is "green cut" rather than burned to prevent pollution. Furthermore, "green cut" harvesting results in the tops and leaves of the plant being left in the field to return nutrients to the soil. A natural ground cover for weed control also results. This type of farming has a positive impact on the environment.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 13.1 g carbohydrate (per 100 calories) or 31.4 g (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources Complex Carbohydrate: brown rice, grain products, pasta, bread, potato.

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Proteins are essential to life and are necessary for the body’s manufacturing and maintenance of all cells and tissues, including organ and brain development, and the making of essential body constituents such as hormones and enzymes. If excess protein is consumed and not needed by the body, it is converted to fat and stored by the body as a potential future energy source. Each gram of protein provides 4 Calories.

Proteins are made up of amino acids; there are 20 amino acids. PediaSmart® Dairy provides all of the essential and non-essential amino acids needed to support growth and development.

The protein source in PediaSmart® Dairy is organic milk protein concentrate which is 82% casein and 18% whey. Organic milk protein concentrate is produced from organic skim milk through a process involving filtration, evaporation and drying. No harsh chemicals are used during processing. Organic milk protein concentrate is also pasteurized to assure that the product contains no pathogenic organisms. The organic skim milk used is from organic dairy herds that do not receive any antibiotics or growth hormone stimulants. Another feature of organic milk protein concentrate is it retains a nice amount of calcium from the organic skim milk thus helping to meet a child’s calcium needs for growing bones.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 3.1 grams protein (per 100 Calories) or 7.4 g (8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: Animal meats, fish, dairy products, soybeans, legumes, nuts.

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Taurine is a non-protein amino acid. It is involved in the formation of bile acids which are needed for fat absorption. It is also involved in the prenatal and postnatal development of the central nervous system and the visual system.

Taurine is classified as a conditionally essential amino acid because a deficiency of taurine in the diet can result in impaired fat absorption, bile acid secretion, retinal function and liver function, all of which can be reversed by taurine supplementation. Taurine deficiency can occur in preterm infants not receiving a taurine supplemented formula or in infants, children or adults receiving the majority of their Calories from a total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solution (a solution being fed intravenously into a large vein). For most infants, children and adults, taurine deficiency or insufficiency is not a concern. However, it is added to PediaSmart® Dairy to ensure the correct amount of this non-essential amino acid in a child’s overall diet.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 8.0 mg taurine (per 100 Calories) or 18 mg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: shellfish and meats, especially organ meats such as liver

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L-Carnitine is a conditionally essential nutrient which the body can manufacture from the amino acids lysine and methionine. It is considered conditionally essential because there may be certain situations when the body is unable to manufacturer adequate amounts. Carnitine deficiency can occur in certain medical conditions or when the diet is deficient in lysine and methionine. In most normal, healthy situations, however, the body can make adequate quantities of carnitine. Carnitine helps the body to convert fatty acids into energy. When carnitine is added to a product, only the L-isomer of carnitine can be used by the body. .

PediaSmart® Dairy: 1.7 mg (per 100 Calories) or 4 mg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: red meats, dairy products, fish, poultry, wheat, asparagus, avocado, and peanut butter.

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Fatty Acids

The term “lipid” refers to compounds including oils, waxes, animal fats and triglycerides that do not dissolve in water. Lipids are most commonly referred to simply as fats.

Fats constitute the principal structural material of all living cells and are an important source of energy. Healthy skin and hair are maintained by fat. Fat also helps the body absorb and move the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K through the bloodstream. Dietary fat intake provides needed essential fatty acids to the body. These essential fatty acids are linoleic acid and linolenic acid. These are fatty acids that the body cannot make and which must be derived from foods.

Fats provide 9 Calories per gram, more than twice the amount of energy provided by a gram of carbohydrate or protein. An excess of dietary Calories provided by carbohydrates, proteins or fats will be stored in the body as adipose tissue. Adipose tissue serves as insulation for the body’s cells and organs but an excess of fat can lead to overweight and obesity.

Triglycerides are the chemical form of fats that exist in foods as well as in the body. Animal fats, such as butter and lard, tend to be solid or semisolid at room temperature and are more saturated than fats from plant sources. Fats from plant sources are usually liquid at room temperature and are called oils. Most plant oils are made up of unsaturated fatty acids with the exception of coconut, palm, and palm kernel oils. There are two types of unsaturated fats:
• Monounsaturated fats: Examples include olive and canola oils.
• Polyunsaturated fats: Examples include fish, safflower, sunflower, corn, and soybean oils.

Fats are an important nutrient for infants and young children. They are needed to support growth, development and energy needs. A child who is not eating or drinking foods with adequate amounts of essential fatty acids can develop a fatty acid deficiency. This is one reason why healthcare professionals strongly advise against the use of skim or low fat milks during early childhood. Signs of an essential fatty acid deficiency include poor growth, scaly skin lesions, dry brittle nails, dandruff, and lack of hair luster.

The proprietary fat blend in PediaSmart® Dairy consists of organic high oleic sunflower and/or safflower oil, organic soybean oil, and organic coconut oil. These oils provide an appropriate level of linolenic and linoleic fatty acids that the human body can convert to DHA and ARA; fatty acids known to support brain and eye retina development.

All of these organic oils are expeller-expressed. This is a process that basically presses the oil from the sunflower and/or safflower, soybean or coconut. Conventionally processed oils use hexane solvents to extract the oils. Hexane is a petroleum by-product of gasoline refining. This harsh process then requires the oil to be flashed with fire to burn off the hexane solvents. Hexane residues can remain in the finished oils. We believe that hexane has no place in a child’s diet – even if only a residue. Also, USDA organic rules prohibit the use of solvent-extracted vegetable oils. So PediaSmart® Dairy would not be labeled organic if we selected conventionally processed vegetable oils.

PediaSmart® Dairy: 3.9 g total fat (per 100 Calories) or 9.4 g (per 8 fluid ounces) 625 mg linoleic acid (per 100 Calories) or 1500 mg (per 8 fluid ounces) 73 mg linolenic acid (per 100 Calories) or 175 mg (per 8 fluid ounces)
Good Food Sources: nuts, seeds, grains legumes, vegetables and their cold-pressed oils.

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